Include Competencies in a Succession Plan

 

Succession planning is an ongoing system of identifying competent employees who are ready to move into key jobs in the organization and/or those who, with specifically identified development, will be ready to assume key jobs at some stated point in the future. Job-person matches are made between existing employees and future jobs they might assume. These future jobs are usually higher level posi­tions. But, succession planning may be for key jobs above, at the same level, or even below the job an employee now holds. Increasingly, succession planning is for lateral job moves (e.g., to a different function, project team, or geography).

The usual criteria for a succession planning system successful include:

  • One, preferably two, well-qualified internal candidates are identified as ready to assume any key job should it become vacant.
  • A record of successful promotions (or other job placements).
  • Few superior performers leave the organization because of “lack of opportunity­”

Competency-based succession planning systems identify the competency re­quirements for critical jobs, assess candidate competencies, and evaluate possible job-person matches. Career path “progression maps” identify key “feeder” jobs for lateral or higher level “target” positions within a job fam­ily or across job families.

The table below shows seven generic levels for line, staff function, and team/ project management. Jobs at any given level are feeder positions for higher rungs on the job ladder, and for lateral moves to positions in other job families.

A competency-based succession planning system assesses how many em­ployees in which feeder jobs have (or have the potential to develop) the compe­tencies to perform well in key target jobs. There are two ways of doing this.

  • The first is to compare the competencies of people in the feeder job with the competency requirements of the target job.
  • The second is to compare the competency requirements of the feeder job and the target job.

                  Generic Organizational Structure: Feeder Jobs and Levels

Line Staff Team/Project
1. Individual Contributor: Seasoned professional New hire 1. Individual Contributor: Seasoned professional New hire 1. Individual Contributor: Seasoned professional New hire
2. First Line Supervisor: Homogenous work group 2. Lead professional: Integrates other professionals work 2. Team/Project Leader: without permanent reports
3. Department: Manages several work units managed by subordinate supervisors 3. Function Manager: (finance, human resources) for a small business unit 3. Project Manager: Coordinates Project/Team Leaders from several work groups
4. Several Departments: Manages plant, region, several departments, function managers 4. Several Functions: (e.g., finance and administration) 4. Large Project Manager: Manages other Project managers
5. Business Unit: President or General Manager 5. Top Function Manager: for a business: VP Finance, VP Marketing 5. Major Product Manager: Coordinates all functions – R&D, marketing, manufacturing, HR
6. Division: Manages many business units (e.g., Group VP of large firm) 6. Corporate Executive VP: (e.g., Chief Financial Officer) 6. Mega Project Manager: $100+ million (e.g., NASA, military weapons acquisition)
7. Major Corporation CEO: Large complex multi-division organization

ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES

The issues that indicate a need for competency-based succession planning systems include:

  • Promotion or placement outcomes are poor; too many people promoted or transferred to new responsibilities fail or quit. Typical examples are promoting the best salesperson to sales manager or the best technical professional to supervisor and then finding he or she lacks essential in­terpersonal understanding and influence skills.
  • There is a need to redeploy technical/professional staff people to mar­keting or line management jobs-or managers back to individual con­tributor roles in an organization that is cutting middle management. “Lean and mean” organizations offer fewer vertical promotional or ca­reer path opportunities, with the result that more succession planning is In downsizing organizations, the key placement question may be which managers have kept up with their technical and professional com­petencies so they are able to return to individual contributor roles.
  • Organizational changes require employees with different competencies. Globalizing firms need employees with the competencies to function in different parts of the world. Privatizing organizations need to determine which government bureaucrats have enough achievement motivation to be­come entrepreneurs and businesspeople. Stagnant firms need employees with innovative and entrepreneurial competencies to survive in markets with shorter product life cycles and fast-moving foreign competitors. Downsizing firms need to decide who stays and who is let go, that is, which employees have the competencies to fill demanding “same amount of work with fewer people” jobs in the new, smaller organization.
  • Mergers, acquisitions, and reorganizations require the surviving firm to decide which existing employees are needed for (which) jobs in the new structure. Mergers of similar firms often result in an organization with two marketing departments, two sales forces, duplicate staffs in many functions; merger efficiencies come from elimination of the double As with downsizing organizations, the question of who stays and who goes is determined by which employees have the competencies to succeed in the firm’s future jobs.

STEPS IN DEVELOPING A COMPETENCY-BASED SYSTEM

  1. Identify Key Jobs. Identifying these jobs in the organization’s struc­ture – or the structure it wants for the future usually includes identifying the firm’s strategy, its critical value-added target jobs, and key feeder jobs to these target jobs. Most organizations will have some variant of the seven levels shown in Table 1 for line, technical/professional, or functional staff, and team/project manager job families. Vertical progression in a job family is:
    – Individual contributor, often divided into two subgroups: new hire and seasoned professional
    – First-level functional supervisor, managing a homogeneous group of individual contributors (e.g., a move from engineer to chief engineer or programmer to software development team leader). For functional technical/professionals and project job families, this level may be a lead professional who acts as a temporary team leader, assists and integrates other professionals’ work, and mentors junior employees, but does not have any permanent reports.
    – Department, function or project managers, who manage supervisors or lead professionals of several work groups
    – Multiple departments or functions managers, who manage several other department, function, or project managers (e.g., a plant or re­gional manager, or director of finance and administration)
    – Business unit general manager, such as CEO of a small firm (less than $20 million in annual revenues); top functional manager, such as Mar­keting or Finance Vice President of a medium-size firm ($20-$200 million revenues); or manager of a major project
    – Division general manager, such as CEO of a medium-size firm ($200 million revenues); top functional executive in a large firm ($200+ million revenues), or mega-project manager
    – CEO of a large, complex multidivision organization
  2. Develop Competency Models for Critical Target and Feeder Jobs. Fre­quently this involves development of competency models for each of several steps in a job family ladder. BEIs conducted with four superiors and two aver­ages at each level are analyzed to identify competencies required for a supe­rior performance at the level and also to pinpoint how the competencies change or grow as an employee advances up the ladder.
  3. Create a Formalized Succession Planning Process. This process should be an annual cycle that requires management at each level to conduct assessments and engage in discussions about the talent within their organizations including performance and potential of their direct reports and other high potential people within their groups. In addition a mid-year update meeting can be help to identify progress since the last formal session. During the annual session the management team classifies people, in terms of their performance and potential, as:
  • Promotable, either:
    • Ready now, or
    • Developable (i.e., could be ready in the future if they develop specific competencies to the level required by the future jobs for which they are candidates)
  • Not promotable :
    • Competent in their current job, and/or
    • Have potential to transfer laterally to some other job
  • Not competent in their current job and not a fit with other jobs in the organization as it will be in the future. These people are candidates for early retirement or outplacement.

4. Develop a Human Resource Management Information System. Succession planning for more than a few positions all but requires a computerized human resource information system to keep track of the competency requirements of all jobs, competencies of these people assessed, and evaluation of possible job-­person matches.
5. Develop a Development/Career Pathing System (Optional). Succession planning systems create demand for competency-based development and ca­reer pathing systems. Once employees understand the competency require­ments for higher jobs and the gaps between their competencies and those required by the jobs they want, they ask for training or other developmental activities to close the gap. Similarly, once an organization is aware of the com­petencies it needs to be successful and the gaps between these needs and the capabilities of its existing or projected staff, it seeks selection or developmen­tal programs to close these gaps.

Workitect consulting services are available to create competency-based succession planning and talent management systems.    Contact us.

Related Posts

Succession planning strategy can hurt company competitiveness

Competency Models for Succession Planning

Selecting for Success: Succession Planning

Download PDF of this post.

Reference: Competence At Work, by Lyle Spencer and Signe Spencer; 1993, John Wiley & Sons.

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Learn how to build your own job competency models

 

Many companies are building their own competency models without the help (& expense) of external consultants.

More than 1,000 HR professionals have attended a three-day workshop and learned how to use a six-step process that includes the use of templates that guide the collection and coding of data necessary to build competency models, frameworks, and HR applications. Competency models, done right, connect human resource strategies with business strategies.

Details: The next workshop will be conducted on October 22-24, 2018 in Ft. Lauderdale.
                        Program Brochure                Feedback from Participants

Our methodology for building models is based on the original job competence assessment (JCA) methodology developed in the 1970’s by Dr. David McClelland, a pioneer in competency research and testing, and by consultants at McBer and Company.

Organizations that buy off-the-shelf models or use a methodology similar to that used to write job descriptions are missing out on the most significant benefit of competency models. Models customized to an organization are based on analyses of superior performers in that organization, with its unique culture, ways of doing business, and business strategy. The models paint a picture of what success looks like in that particular organization. Off-the-shelf models and those developed by sorting cards, brainstorming, or reading the latest business book cannot do that. Why not learn how to build models the right way? If you don’t, all of the HR applications you develop that are based on those models will be flawed.

This is the six-step process that is taught in this workshop.

CompetencySteps_Banner

As a result of attending this workshop, participants are able to:

  • Plan a competency modeling project
  • Communicate and gain support for the project
  • Chose from alternative methods for building single competency models and one-size-fits-all models
  • Build models for multiple jobs in an organization
  • Use resource panels to collect data
  • Conduct structured key event interviews
  • Analyze and code interview transcripts, and write job models
  • Develop HR applications for talent management, assessment, selection, succession planning, development, and performance management
  • Use Workitect’s licensed competency dictionary (purchased separately)
  • Obtain 19.25 credits for SHRM and HRCI certification
  • Create competency models and competency-based talent management applications, including those for:

Performance Management: assess competencies and results side by side, reminding employees that how they do things is as important as what they do.
Training and Development: use competencies to identify gaps in each employee’s capabilities so these gaps can be remedied, and provide individuals with detailed road maps for increasing their capabilities incrementally.
Staffing: use competencies to hire, place and promote people with the right capabilities to help the organization gain competitive advantage.
Compensation: both competencies and results impact pay decisions to reward performance and competency development.
Succession Planning & Talent Management: identify the competency requirements for critical jobs, assess candidate competencies, and evaluate possible job-person matches.

What methodology are you using to build models in your organization? How would you rate the impact it has had on your organization?

Let Us Help You
Workitect is a leading provider of competency-based talent development systems, tools and programs. We use “job competency assessment” to identify the characteristics of superior performers in key jobs in an organization. These characteristics, or competencies, become “blueprints” for outstanding job performance. Competencies include personal characteristics, motives, knowledge, and behavioral skills. Job competency models are the foundation of an integrated talent management system that includes selection, performance management, succession planning, and leadership development. Contact our experienced consultants to learn how we can improve all areas of your talent management processes.

More information about the Building Competency Models workshop.

Join LinkedIn's Competency-Based Talent Management group

Join LikedIn’s Competency-Based Talent Management group for further discussion on this topic.

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Choose from Three Types of Job Competency Models

When planning a competency model-building project, three distinctive types of models need to be considered:

  1.   Single Job Competency Model
  2.   One-Size-Fits-All Model
  3.   Multiple Jobs Models

A project usually focuses on one of these approaches, although it is possible to use a combination of approaches within one organization. The following is an overview and summary of the three types. Links to full descriptions are provided at the end of each section.

  1. SINGLE JOB COMPETENCY MODEL
  • Used for an important, focused set of jobs, e.g.,
    • Sales Rep, Project Manager, Customer Service Rep
  • Requires rigorous data collection, including:
    • Resource panel
    • Key Event Interviews
    • Data from Other Sources
  • The completed model can aid development of training materials

Typical Features

  • Highly specific behavioral descriptors that describe what superior performers do in specific tasks and situations and with whom
  • Detailed linking of competencies to job responsibilities and specific tasks

When to Use

  • Opportunity to gain competitive advantage by improving productivity of people in a key job through selection or training
  • Potential productivity gains justify time and expense of this approach
  • Need to use model as basis for a training curriculum
  • There are several superior performers in the job now
  • Job is expected to continue for at least 3 years

Example: Project Manager job

Read more >>>

  1. ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL MODEL
  • Targets a broad set of jobs (e.g., all managerial jobs)
  • Model often includes competencies selected for alignment with company’s values and strategic direction
  • Competencies and behaviors are described in general terms that are not job specific

When to Use

  • When line management or HR wants to promote alignment with vision, values, and strategy
  • When simple solutions are preferred
  • When HR wants to quickly implement something that will have broad impact
  • When a training and development program based on the competency model will serve a large group (e.g., mid-level managers)

Example: Executives

Read more >>>

  1. MULTIPLE MODELS FOR MULTIPLE JOBS
  • Identifies a set of “building block” competencies for constructing all job models
  • Each competency model uses some of the building block competencies
  • Often includes technical skills and knowledge
  • Often uses competency levels
  • Competency models may include:
    • A core set of competencies for all employees
    • A set of competencies for everyone in a job family (e.g., Finance)
    • A set of job-specific competencies
  • Competency models are large (16 or more competencies)

       Why have Competency Levels

  • Levels facilitate comparison of jobs —
    A competency may be required at a basic level in one job and at an advanced level in another
  • Levels facilitate assessment of individuals as part of performance appraisal/management
  • Levels allow comparison of individual profiles with job profiles (e.g., for internal selection)

When to Use the Multiple Jobs Approach

  • When competency models are desired for many jobs in one organizational unit
  • When technical skill and knowledge are important
  • When the jobs in an organization are highly varied, and different sets of competencies are required for different jobs
  • When there is a need to match individual skill sets to assignments, for selection, career planning and succession planning
  • When technology or HR software is available

Read more >>>

Blog: Advantages of One-Size-Fits-All and Multiple Jobs Approaches

THE BOTTOM-LINE ABOUT COMPETENCY MODELS
Planning the development of competency models is an exercise in practical problem solving. There are alternative methods for collecting and analyzing data, for deciding what to include in the model, and for formatting the model and its behavioral descriptors. The choices among the alternatives should depend on goals of key stakeholders, the needs of key users, the budget and time available to develop the model, and the preferred styles of the model building team.

What makes a good competency model? The model must meet the needs of its key users. Each competency should be conceptually coherent and different from the other competencies. The behavioral descriptors should be clearly and crisply worded. The model should also be parsimonious; including too many competencies and behavioral descriptors makes a model ponderous to read and use. Finally, a good model is often supplemented with components that will add value for an intended HR application.

Contact Workitect if you want help in building competency models for your organization, or attend our Building Competency Models workshop and learn how to model your own models.

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Are Competency Models Too Complex?

Many organizations are questioning the value of their existing competency models. Over the past few years, multiple clients and prospective clients have expressed their concerns or outright dissatisfaction with their models. Here are comments from several organizations:

“Our current competency models are so long and complex that managers and   employees see them as just another HR program that is unusable and out-of-touch with    the way we do business here.”  Director of Talent Management, High Tech Company

“Competency models have earned such a bad reputation that we are looking for an alternate name to call them.”  CHRO of Consumer Goods Company

“Too academic and theoretical even for us.” Chief Administrative Officer for Educational Institution

Based on detailed feedback from people in these and other organizations, there appear to be several causes of this dissatisfaction and lack of success.

  • Models and applications are not driven by the business strategy and focused on producing superior organizational results. Thus, there is little or no support by top management.
  • When not done correctly,building models with multiple levels of competencies can increase the size of a complete model to 25 – 50 competencies. Adding in multiple levels of proficiencies for each competency can then create textbook-sized models. 
  • People don’t like working with large models that are difficult to comprehend and use, especially when it comes to applying them to selection, development, career planning, and performance management.
  • Models created with a generic competency dictionary created by external consultants often do not capture the unique language and culture of the organization, and fail to resonate with employees. These dictionaries are often large and complex and integrated into a human resource information system, making it difficult and expensive to customize.
  • Too much emphasis on research and validity often leads to comprehensive models that are not practical to implement.

A BETTER WAY – KEEP IT SIMPLE

Organizations have avoided these problems by creating concise competency models that are tailored for each organization and contain information that is most helpful to each employee. These models include:

Short descriptions of each job or job role, in simple non-theoretical language that is easy for all employees and executives to understand and apply. Each description includes:

1) Job Responsibilities, Tasks, & Performance Measures

2) Critical Abilities and Attributes (aka competencies) needed to perform the tasks in a successful or superior manner.

3) Compilation of these competencies (typically 8-14), including competencies required to support the company’s mission, values, & strategy; with behavioral indicators for each competency (observable, measurable ways to demonstrate the competency)

Example – Project Manager position


Blogs

Tailor job competency models to your organization’s vision, mission, and shared values

Six Steps to Building Competency Models Step 1: Conceptualizing the Project

Build Better Job Competency Models

Obtaining A Customizable Competency Dictionary

Learn how to build competency models the right way (workshop)

REGISTER FOR WORKITECT’S BUILDING COMPETENCY MODELS WORKSHOP SCHEDULED FOR OCTOBER 22-24.


Workitect WebsiteCompetency Models
Competency Management System

References: Competency Models Are Failing. Why?

CONTACT US FOR HELP IN DEVELOPING USER-FRIENDLY COMPETENCY MODELS

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Build or Buy a Competency Dictionary?

If you have decided to build competency models and/or include competencies in your HR applications, you will need to choose a method to use in building the models. Whatever method you choose, it will be much easier and faster to be able to draw on a list of specific competencies to include in each model. This list is also known as a competency “dictionary” or “library”. The alternative is to create the competencies as you develop each model. In this blog, we review three options for acquiring or developing a generic competency dictionary.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Competencies are:
Competencies are the skills and behaviors that outstanding performers demonstrate more often, more skillfully, and with better results than do average performers.
This is an example of a competency:
Empowering Others
Definition: Conveying confidence in employees’ ability to be successful, especially at challenging new tasks; delegating significant responsibility and authority; allowing      employees freedom to decide how they will accomplish their goals and resolve issues.

Behavioral Indicators (specific ways of demonstrating the competency in the job)

  1. Gives people latitude to make decisions in their own sphere of work
  2. Is able to let others make decisions and take charge
  3. Encourages individuals and groups to set their own goals, consistent with business goals
  4. Expresses confidence in the ability of others to be successful
  5. Encourages groups to resolve problems on their own; avoids prescribing a solution

A generic competency dictionary would contain a list of competencies, each described similar to the Empowering Others example shown above. 

Competency Models
A model is a group of related competencies that together describe successful performance for a particular job or role, in a particular organization. Most models contain 8-15 competencies. Here are some examples.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Options for Acquiring a Competency Dictionary/Library

1. DEVELOP YOUR OWN COMPETENCY DICTIONARY
You can develop your own models and a dictionary that includes using a list of specific competencies that you have developed on your own, possibly drawing on research on existing libraries.

Advantages:

  • Total flexibility on what competencies to select and how to describe them.
  • Out-of-pocket cost less than purchasing from most outside dictionary developers/licensors.
  • Will be tailored to your organization and use your organization’s language. More relevant to the organization’s unique environment.
  • Employees may be more committed to a competency model if they have been deeply involved in its development, and development of the dictionary.

Disadvantages:

  • Lack of research, testing, practical use, and validity.
  • Difficulty in clearly describing behavioral indicators of each competency.
  • May inadvertently reference copyrighted competency dictionaries and violate legal copyrights, incurring dollar penalties and negative publicity for the company. May violate ethics values and rules.
  • High total costs when factoring in amount of staff time and pay of developers.

2. PURCHASE A COMPETENCY DICTIONARY
From a large consulting firm such as Korn Ferry, HRSG, et al.

Advantages:

  • Capitalizes on the experience gained in other competency modeling projects, either in other companies or elsewhere in the same organization.
  • Incorporates research across multiple industries and organizations.
  • Comprehensive, large number of competencies (60 +)
  • Software that may integrate with other HRIS.
  • Efficiency – ensures consistency of competency language across an organization and that all potentially relevant competencies are considered
  • Can provide an excellent starting point in development of an organization’s competency model.
  • Large number of sales representatives to service accounts.

Disadvantages:

  • High initial cost plus high annual renewal fees.
  • Difficult and expensive to customize.
  • Seen by users as too complex or academic, not “real-world”, and difficult to understand and use.
  • Support from vendor to create models and applications, or train organization to build own models is expensive or non-existent.
  • Not tailored to the organization and use the organization’s language.
  • May not be effectively used to create competency models and included in applications.
  • Organizational members may not be as committed to a competency model if they have not been deeply involved in its development.

3. PURCHASE WORKITECT COMPETENCY DICTIONARY

Advantages:

  • Low one-time fee. No annual renewal fees.
  • Capitalizes on the experience gained in other competency modeling projects, either in other companies or elsewhere in the same organization.
  • Incorporates research across multiple industries and organizations. Used by more than 100 organizations of all sizes and industries.
  • Methodology for the building of competency models and development of the dictionary is based on the Job Competence Assessment (JCA) methodology developed by Dr. David McClelland, a pioneer in motivation and competency research and testing at Harvard, and consultants at McBer and Company.
  • Simpler, manageable 35 foundational (leadership, management, and professional) competencies, with definition and behavioral indicators by three role levels (Executive/Director- Manager/Supervisor-Professional/Specialist) and three levels of proficiency (Basic-Skilled-Expert)
  • Practical, tested, flexible (not software), easy to customize and tailor, e.g. modify title, add competencies.
  • Can be integrated into any HRMS
  • Efficiency – ensures consistency of competency language across an organization and that all potentially relevant competencies are considered
  • Can provide an excellent starting point in development of an organization’s competency model,
  • Instruction on how to use dictionary to build models with the help of a dictionary.
    Quick-Start Competency-Modeling instructional program plus 12 model templates, and the Building Competency Models 3-day certification workshop
  • A low-cost integrated talent management package is available. It includes Competency Interview Guides, Competency Development Guides, and 360° feedback assessments for the same 35 competencies.

 Disadvantages

  • Workitect is a small firm with no regional sales representatives. Support is provided by four senior consultants.
  • Integration with an organization’s HRMS (built internally or by vendor) requires IT assistance.
  • May require extra effort to “sell” Workitect and our approach because our name may not be as familiar to executives as are larger consulting firms that also provide executive search services.

Call 800-870-9490 or email edward.cripe@workitect.com for more information.

You are invited to join a LinkedIn group that I manage, Competency-Based Talent Management https://www.linkedin.com/groups/3714316 Our members would welcome your involvement in the group.

Sign up to receive the Workitect E-Newsletter. Get valuable news, insights and practical knowledge sent to you every month. Workitect Blueprints keeps you informed about key issues facing today’s organizations—from producing superior leaders to creating superior organizations. Sign up here!

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Step 5 of Model Building Process – Completing the Competency Model(s)

Previous blogs have described steps 1 through 4 in Workitect’s competency modeling process. Step 4, Data Collection, was covered in these blogs:

Collecting Data to Build Competency Models
Secondary Data Collection Methods
Conducting Behavioral Event Interviews
Using Resource/Expert Panels to Build Competency Models                                     General Approach for Analyzing Data to Build a Competency Model

STEP 5 – BUILDING THE MODEL (S)

After you have coded and analyzed data gathered from resource panels, interviews, and other methods, you are ready to build (write and complete) the competency model. If you are constructing one competency model, the process includes the following steps:

  1. Select a set of 8 to 15 competencies to include in the competency model.
  2. Select or create behavioral indicators for each competency.
  3. Identify 3 or 4 competency clusters and group the competencies within these clusters.
  4. Create a definition for each competency.
  5. Prepare a draft competency model.
  6. Have the sponsor and key stakeholders review the draft competency model.
  7. Revise the draft model to accommodate reasonable suggestions from the sponsor and stakeholders.

The first three of these steps are usually done at a meeting of the analysts. Each of the steps will be described in detail in the sections that follow.

1. Select a Set of 8 to 15 Competencies to Include in the Competency Model

Why Should a Competency Model Have 8 to 15 Competencies

For most jobs, at least eight competencies are needed to capture the skills and personal qualities that contribute to superior performance. The more complex the job, the more competencies can be identified. But when there are more than 15 competencies, a competency model becomes difficult to use. For example, a competency assessment tool assessing 16 competencies with five items per competency would have 80 items – perhaps too many to rate in a reasonable amount of time. If the users of the competency model have a low tolerance for complexity, the number of competencies should be at the low end of the 8 to 15 range. If the users have a higher tolerance for complexity (for example, among engineers or scientists), the number of competencies can be at the high end of the same range.

Ways to Limit the Number of Competencies

For complex jobs, such as middle and senior management positions, it is often possible to identify 20 or more competencies that contribute to superior performance. But to ensure that the competency model is useful, it is necessary to limit the number of competencies. One way to do this is to remove and set aside competencies that would also be present in “feeder” jobs for the position under study. For example, when building a competency model for middle managers of engineers, you might remove Analytical Thinking and Managing Performance. Analytical Thinking would be needed in lower level engineering positions, and Managing Performance would be needed in first-level engineering management positions. Competencies removed in this way could either be eliminated completely from the competency model, or could be separately acknowledged as part of a set of “baseline” competencies for the position. It may be useful to identify and build applications for a set of baseline competencies, if many of the job-holders lack these competencies.

A second way to limit the number of competencies is to eliminate ones that appear less important in comparison to the others. For example, you could eliminate generic competencies that received fewer votes from the Resource Panel. If you conducted and coded Structured Event Interviews, the less important competencies include both ones occurring with low frequency among superior performers and ones occurring with similar frequency among outstanding performers and persons judged to be somewhat less effective.

A third way to limit the number of competencies is to combines ones that are conceptually related. For example, Interpersonal Awareness and Building Collaborative Relationships are conceptually related, because it usually takes some Interpersonal Awareness to build relationships. When combining competencies, you can retain one of the competency names while incorporating a few conceptually related behavioral indicators from the other
competency. The following pairs of competencies have conceptual similarities.

2. Select or Create Behavioral Indicators for Each Competency

If a generic competency framework has been used, you can review the behavioral indicators for a competency and either use the entire set or select the behaviors which seem appropriate for the job being studied. Behavioral indicators are specific ways of demonstrating the competency in the job. If you want to create new or additional behavioral indicators, be sure that each one clearly describes a behavior that would clearly facilitate effective performance. Behavioral indicators should not describe people’s perceptions of the job-holder (e.g., “is widely respected”). Start each behavioral indicator with a verb. This is an example of behavioral indicators for the competency of Empowering Others:

Definition of Empowering Others: Conveying confidence in employees’ ability to be successful, especially at challenging new tasks; delegating significant responsibility and authority; allowing employees freedom to decide how they will accomplish their goals and resolve issues.
Behavioral Indicators 

  1. Gives people latitude to make decisions in their own sphere of work
  2. Is able to let others make decisions and take charge
  3. Encourages individuals and groups to set their own goals, consistent with business goals
  4. Expresses confidence in the ability of others to be successful
  5. Encourages groups to resolve problems on their own; avoids prescribing a solution

If you conducted and analyzed Structured Event Interviews you may want to create some new behavioral indicators based on behaviors that did not fit any of the existing behavioral indicators in the generic competency framework.

3. Identify 3 or 4 competency clusters and group the competencies within these clusters

Clustering the competencies helps people remember the competencies. It is difficult to read and understand a list of 12 competencies but easier to deal with three clusters of four competencies each. The cluster names should be conceptually clear, as in this example:4. Create a definition for each competency

If you are using a generic competency framework, you can use the definitions from it, but you will need to create definitions for new competencies. You may want to revise the wording of the generic competencies, so that the definitions have high impact and use the language of the organization. This is especially true if you are developing a one-size-fits-all model that will be widely used in the organization.

Creating competency definitions is best done by persons who have reviewed the evidence from the data analysis and who are skilled at written communication. Here is an example of a competency definition that was created with the assistance of a professional writer.

Resilience: Complexity and change test the individual and the organization. When things don’t go as planned, leaders must stay focused and productive to bring others along with them.

5. Prepare a Draft Competency Model

 Since key stakeholders in the model (e.g., job holders and their managers) will need to “buy in” to the competency model, it is useful to create a draft version of the competency model and have them review it. Here is a possible format for the draft competency model.

Page 1:     The competency clusters with the competency names under each cluster
Page 2:     The competencies with definitions, grouped by cluster
Page 3:     Competency 1 followed by its definition and behavioral indicators.
Page 3.1   Competency 2 followed by its definition and behavioral indicators
etc.

6. Have the sponsor and key stakeholders review the draft competency model.

Review the draft competency model with the project’s sponsor first. If the sponsor approves, send the draft competency model to be reviewed by some of the people participated as Resource Panel members or interviewees. It may be desirable to reconvene the Resource Panel or to hold a conference call with panel members after they have had a chance to review the competency model.

7. Revise the draft model to accommodate reasonable suggestions from the sponsor and stakeholders.

The stakeholders often provide valuable input. For example, they may want to include a competency that you had eliminated because you thought it was less important than the ones you included. Try to accommodate reasonable suggestions, but resist making changes that violate the principles explained in this workbook.a

ADDITIONAL STEPS TO BE COVERED IN FUTURE BLOGS

A. Special situations in building competency models:
– Working with Competency Levels
– Working within a framework of Core Competencies
B. Prepare version(s) of the model(s) to be used in application(s)

_____________________________________________________________________________

Source/Reference:

Step 5 of Workitect’s six-step model building process as taught in the Building Competency Models certification workshop and practiced by Workitect consultants in the development of job competency models. Instruction on developing competency models is also contained in the Quick-Start Competency Modeling program that is included with Competency Dictionary licenses.

Simplify the Development of Competency Models.
Use Customizable Tools to Simplify Implementation
Purchase Separately or as a Set 

Utilize a comprehensive set of tools developed by Workitect. Each component is written in language that “makes sense” to people at all levels in an organization. You’ll save, time and money and have the confidence that your applications are based on tested, research-based content.

Each tool is derived from the 35 competencies in Workitect’s Competency Dictionary, and the competency models that are created. The Competency Development Guide and eDeveloper™ focus on ways to develop each of the 35 competencies. The Competency Interview Guides describe an interview process and interview questions for each competency. The 360° survey instrument provides assessment feedback for each competency.

©2018, WORKITECT, INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
No part of this work may be copied or transferred to any other expression or form without written permission or a license Workitect, Inc. – 800.870-9490 – consult@workitect.com

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General Approach for Analyzing Data to Build a Competency Model

STEP 4 – DATA ANALYSIS AND CODING

Previous blogs have described steps 1 through 3 in Workitect’s competency modeling process. Step 3, Data Collection, was covered in these blogs:

Collecting Data to Build Competency Models
Secondary Data Collection Methods
Conducting Behavioral Event Interviews
Using Resource/Expert Panels to Build Competency Models

The general approach for analyzing the data collected in step 3 has three steps:

  1. Reviewing/modifying a set of generic competencies that will be used as the conceptual framework guiding the analysis.
  2. Separately reviewing the evidence from each data collection method to identify a potential set of competencies, drawn from the generic competency framework.
  3. Reviewing and comparing the evidence across methods to identify a set of potential competencies to include in the competency model.

Each of these steps is described below. Note that the data analysis ends with identifying a potential set of competencies to include in the competency model. Moving from that step to building the actual competency model will be described in a separate blog.

Reviewing/Modifying a Set of Generic Competencies to Include in the Competency Model

If you are using a Multiple Jobs Approach to building the competency model, you will have already identified a set of generic competencies to serve as building blocks for the various competency models you are planning. If you are using the Single Job Approach or the One Size Fits All Approach, you may have used a set of generic competencies that were rated by a Resource Panel or by persons with whom you did Job Analysis Interviews. If, by chance, you have not yet begun to use a set of generic competencies, now is the time to start, because a framework of generic competencies is useful in guiding the analysis.

You will not necessarily end up with competencies as they appear in the initial generic competency framework. You may identify and add competencies that were not initially part of the framework. You may modify some of the competencies from the initial framework. But using the framework will facilitate the analysis of the data.

Based on the experience of collecting the data, you may already have some ideas about competencies that need to be added to the framework. For example, if you are preparing a competency model for Project Managers, you may have decided to add Project Management Knowledge to the framework as a technical skill/knowledge competency. It may be clear that the wording used to describe certain competencies can be improved by substituting language that better fits the job or organization. For example, if the organization in which you are working uses the term, “Driving Innovation” instead of “Managing Change,” you may want to change the competency name accordingly

If it is clear at the start of the data analysis process that changes like these will be needed, you might as well modify the generic competency framework now, so that you can look for and track evidence for these new or modified competencies during the analysis process. It will still be possible to modify generic competencies and add new competencies later on.

Separately Reviewing the Evidence Generated from Each Data Collection Method, to Identify a Set of Potential Competencies Drawn from the Generic Competency Framework

In this step you separately review the evidence from each of the data collection methods that you used – Job Analysis Interviews, for example – and try to answer the following question: Based on this data collection method alone, which competencies should be considered for inclusion in the competency model?

In carrying out this analysis, you may encounter direct evidence for certain competencies from the generic competency framework. For example, all or most of the participants at a Resource Panel may select a competency for inclusion in the competency model. Or, when analyzing Structured Interviews with superior performers, you may find that their descriptions of their behavior during key past events include many examples of some competency.

But your analysis may also reveal indirect evidence that a competency is important. For example, if you learn that an important task for sales representatives is to deliver formal and informal presentations to clients, this task implies the need for the competency, Persuasive Communication. Or if you learn that a key performance measure for a job is Customer Satisfaction, this implies the importance of the competency, Customer Orientation.

Review and Compare the Evidence Across Methods to Identify a Set of Potential Competencies to Include in the Competency Model

Although there will be some overlap in the competencies that are suggested by each data collection method, there will probably be some differences, at least in emphasis. Job Analysis Interviews with managers of persons in the job may lead to the identification of competencies that are most important and visible to the job holders’ managers. Interviews with customers of the job holders will highlight competencies that are most visible and important to customers. Structured Event Interviews may reveal thought processes that lead to the identification of competencies such as Conceptual Thinking that are not as likely to be surfaced through other data collection methods.

One way to compare the competencies revealed by different methods is to construct a matrix of generic competencies by methods, like the one below. You can omit generic competencies that are not identified as important in the analysis of any of the data gathering methods that you used. In each cell, use H, M, or L to indicate whether the competency seems high, medium or low in importance, based on data from this method. In the Overall column, make a judgment about the importance of including this competency in the competency model. You do not need to weight each data collection method equally.

AN OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR ANALYZING DATA GATHERED DROM INDIVIDUALS

Details of this process, and instruction on analyzing and coding the data collected in step 3, are provided in the Workitect Building Competency Models workshop and practiced by Workitect consultants in the development of job competency models.

Analyzing Data from Job Analysis Interviews

Analyzing Data from Resource Panels
Analyzing Data from Structured Event Interviews
General Principle 1. Recognize Target Data
Target Data is defined as behaviorally specific information, volunteered by the interviewee in response to non-leading questions, about what the interviewee did, said, thought, or felt in one specific past situation.
General Principle 2. Focus on Effective, Impressive Behavior
General Principle 3. Code Against the Generic Competencies and Their Behavioral Indicators
This is one approach to implement coding:
A Simple Coding Process Using a Checklist
We have developed a simple coding process that is appropriate if you are doing a small number of Structured Event Interviews with superior performers and want to use the interviews to help identify behavioral indicators used by these persons.

This coding process involves using a checklist based on the framework of generic competencies and their behavioral indicators.

Reviewing and Analyzing Other Data
Survey Data, Customer Interviews, Observational Data

Details of this process, and instruction on analyzing and coding the data collected in step 3, are provided in the Workitect Building Competency Models workshop and practiced by Workitect consultants in the development of job competency models.

Instruction on developing competency models is also contained in the Quick-Start Competency Modeling program that is included with Competency Dictionary licenses.

©2018, WORKITECT, INC., ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
No part of this work may be copied or transferred to any other expression or form without written permission or a license Workitect, Inc. – 800.870-9490 – licensing@workitect.com

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Use this Tool to Interview and Select Candidates with People Skills

 

People Skills = Interpersonal Effectiveness 
The ability to notice, interpret, and anticipate others’ concerns and feelings, and to communicate this awareness empathetically to others.  Behavioral indicators:

  1. Understands the interests and important concerns of others
  2. Notices and accurately interprets what others are feeling, based on their choice of words, tone of voice, expressions, and other nonverbal behavior
  3. Anticipates how others will react to a situation
  4. Listens attentively to people’s ideas and concerns
  5. Understands both the strengths and weaknesses of others
  6. Understands the unspoken meaning in a situation
  7. Says or does things to address others’ concerns
  8. Finds non-threatening ways to approach others about sensitive issues
  9. Makes others feel comfortable by responding in ways that convey interest in what they have to say

Importance of this Competency
Interpersonal Effectiveness is a fundamental interpersonal skill. It has two key aspects: (1) noticing what people are feeling, especially when they are not stating this explicitly and (2) showing by your responses to others that you care about their concerns. Interpersonal Effectiveness is essential in influencing, selling, team leadership, and people management. If you are aware of other people’s concerns, interests, and feelings, you are in a position to address them and, in so doing, to gain people’s support for what you would like to accomplish.

Conduct Structured Behavioral-Event Interviews
Include competencies in this important talent management application

Competency Interview Guides provide an easy-to-follow format for structured, behavioral-based interviews. Each Guide, with specific questions for each of 35 competencies, makes it easy for the hiring manager or interviewer to collect behavioral examples about a candidate’s relevant work experiences and accomplishments. The benefits of using these guides include:

Selecting the best candidate. Provides interviewers with questions that measure key competencies that drive superior performance.

Flexibility. Use a guide for each competency in a competency model. Use for individual, team, or panel interviews. Coordinate and centralize interview records in a HRIS.

Customizable. Edit, add, or delete competencies

Systematic. Each question targets a specific competency and the behaviors that indicate the presence of the competency in a person.

Clear Standards. Evaluations and scoring of interview responses provide detailed job-related documentation, helping to reduce potential bias.

Effective. Different interviewers identify strengths and improvement opportunities for each candidate, prioritize the most important criteria, and make an objective decision.

Complete. Includes instruction on how to conduct the interview, and forms to collect and analyze interview responses.

Download the Interview Guide for
Interpersonal Effectiveness
User’s Guide
Summary & Scoring Form

More tools to improve the talent assessment and acquisition process
COMPETENCY INTERVIEW GUIDES
One for Each of These 35 Competencies

Make these guides available to all HR and non-HR interviewers in your organization with a license that includes a Competency Dictionary license. Contact me for details and cost. Call 800-870-9490 or email ec@workitect.com
_____________________________________________________________________________
SINGLE COPY PURCHASE

Use a Competency Development Resource Guide to develop Interpersonal Effectiveness.

You are invited to join a LinkedIn group that I manage, Competency-Based Talent Management https://www.linkedin.com/groups/3714316 Our members would welcome your involvement in the group.

Sign up to receive the Workitect E-Newsletter. Get valuable news, insights and practical knowledge sent to you every month. Workitect Blueprints keeps you informed about key issues facing today’s organizations—from producing superior leaders to creating superior organizations. Sign up here!

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The Format and Content of Customized Competency Models

In a previous blog, we discussed the value of tailoring job competency models to an organization’s vision, mission, and shared values.
– The job duties of a position may differ by industry or business strategy, thus requiring different competencies for similar jobs.
– Tailored models permit an organization to imbed certain competencies in each model that reflect the vision, mission and shared values of the organization.

Companies that build their own models and external consultants who build models use a variety of formats. Effective models are written in a way to be easily understood by all users, in language that is used by the organization.

Most models developed by Workitect consultants include these sections:

  1. Overview of the Competencies by Cluster
  2. Definition and Behavioral Indicators of each Competency
  3. Overview of Most Important Responsibilities
  4. Major Responsibilities and Performance Measures

Options

  • Links between Responsibilities and Competencies
  • Technical and Knowledge Requirements
  • Future Scan – Potential Changes Affecting the Job in the Future
  • Recommendations on ensuring that incumbents have each competency, through selection, development, and/or training

This is an example of an Overview of the Competencies by Cluster

EXAMPLES of CUSTOMIZED COMPETENCY MODELS

Executive Team Model

Account Representatives Model

 

Web Host Managers Model

OTHER JOBS

Project Manager

Sales Consultant

Controller (Finance)

Branch Manager

RELATED WORKITECT BLOGS

Criteria for an Effective Competency Model

Using Resource / Expert Panels to Build Competency Models

Conducting Job Analysis Interviews

Behavioral Descriptors – Options for Job Competency Models

Build a Basic Competency Model Instruction

Read more about competencies and competency models. Contact Workitect for help in building competency models tailored to an organization.

You are invited to join a LinkedIn group that I manage, Competency-Based Talent Management https://www.linkedin.com/groups/3714316 Our members would welcome your involvement in the group.

Sign up to receive the Workitect E-Newsletter. Get valuable news, insights and practical knowledge sent to you every month. Workitect Blueprints keeps you informed about key issues facing today’s organizations—from producing superior leaders to creating superior organizations. Sign up here!

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Focused Competency Development Program

The objective of this program is to improve each person’s performance in terms of their position-specific competencies, and the organization’s overall performance against those competencies, through feedback, coaching, and training.

Each targeted competency is trained in 2-4 hour modules followed by focused individual development efforts.

This approach consists of nine steps:

A. DEVELOP A COMPETENCY MODEL FOR THE POSITION OR JOB GROUP

1. Create a formal competency model for the specific job group.

A competency is an underlying characteristic of an individual, which can be shown to predict Superior or Effective performance in a job; and indicates a way of behaving or thinking, generalizing across situations, and enduring for a reasonably long period of time.

A competency model is a group of 8-14 related competencies that together describe successful performance for a particular job or role, in a particular organization.

Examples of Models. (PDFs)

Criteria for an Effective Job Competency Model

B. IDENTIFY THE STRENGTHS AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS OF EACH INDIVIDUAL AND THE TOTAL GROUP.

2. Customized 360°survey
A customized 360° feedback instrument based on the model is developed and administered.

The survey provides clear, concise feedback from direct reports, peers, internal customers and supervisors along with the participant’s self-assessment. The participant receives feedback on the degree to which he/she has been observed demonstrating competencies identified and listed in the group’s competency model, usually 8-14 competencies.

3. Feedback to each individual
Each participant receives a feedback report that identifies strengths and development opportunities. This is done in a session where the participants learn how to interpret and use the feedback to prepare individual development plans.

4. Identify the total group’s needs
For the group, this baseline assessment identifies which competencies are strengths and which require development in order to help the organization meet its long and short-term goals.

In addition, participant strengths and development areas can be used to identify optional team projects which can provide developmental experiences in desired competencies for group members.

C. PLAN AND CREATE A TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT APPROACH AND PROGRAM

Identify the competencies that are difficult to improve through training and development activities. Competencies such as Self-Confidence are better acquired through selection.

5. Plan the development approach and program
Based upon the baseline data, a training and development curriculum, including learning goals for each of the targeted competency development modules, is planned.

6. Develop training materials
Select or develop the required training materials. Materials already exist for many of the competencies.

 D. IMPLEMENT THE PROGRAM

7. Conduct training
Training for each targeted competency is delivered in 2-4 hour modules. Workitect’s instructors or an organization’s own instructors can be trained to conduct sessions.

8. Complete individual development plans
At the end of each module, participants work on their individual development plans, utilizing Workitect’s Competency Development Guide and online eDeveloper™. These guides contain tips and resources for the development of 35 specific competencies.
This is where the optional team projects can be introduced as a developmental approach for selected competencies.

9. Follow-up coaching
Managers are trained in coaching skills and in the use of the Competency Development Guide to help participants achieve their individual development goals.

Contact Workitect for additional information.

You are invited to join a LinkedIn group that I manage, Competency-Based Talent Management https://www.linkedin.com/groups/3714316 Our members would welcome your involvement in the group.

Sign up to receive the Workitect E-Newsletter. Get valuable news, insights and practical knowledge sent to you every month. Workitect Blueprints keeps you informed about key issues facing today’s organizations—from producing superior leaders to creating superior organizations. Sign up here!

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