Build Models With Input From Job-Holders


Observation of Job Holders

Observation of job holders can be helpful in developing competency models, if a limited duration of observation will permit observing highly effective behaviors. For most professional and managerial jobs this is not the case. Job holders demonstrate their most effective behaviors infrequently, and the presence of an observer may affect the behavior of the job holder and others being observed concurrently. In addition, much significant behavior may involve thought processes that are not directly observable.

But if effective behaviors occur frequently and can be seen or heard, observation may be a useful tool to include when building a competency model. For example, it may be possible to listen in on customer service representatives as they respond to calls from customers. Observation may also be useful when studying jobs that involve physical skill or dexterity.

When using observation, plan to observe several superior performing job holders for a set period of time (e.g., 2 hours each). Take notes on what you see and hear. If possible, set aside 15 minutes to discuss your observations with the person you observed. You can compare your observations with a set of generic competencies and behavioral indicators, like the Checklist for Noting Themes in Structured Interviews that appears in the Building Competency Models workshop workbook.

Surveys of Job Holders

A survey of job holders can be useful if you wish to validate a set of job tasks identified in Job Analysis Interviews or in a Resource Panel. On the survey, job holders can be asked to rate how often they demonstrate each task, as in the following rating scale.





Rarely or Never



Very Often

Less than once per month

Once a month to once a week

Two to five times a week

Six or more times a week

Job holders can also be asked to rate how important each task is to effective job performance, as in the following rating scale:






Of Some Importance


Very Important

By tabulating the ratings, you can calculate average frequency and importance ratings for each task.

It is not as useful to have job holders rate competencies and behavioral indicators. If, as is typically the case, the competencies have been defined to reflect superior performance, in an average sample of job holders, only a minority will actually demonstrate any competency or behavioral indicator. Yet because of the general human tendency to evaluate oneself highly, most job holders will rate themselves highly on most behaviors.

Share Button
This entry was posted in About Competencies, Building Job Competency Models and tagged , , , , , , by Edward Cripe. Bookmark the permalink.

About Edward Cripe

Ed has over thirty-five years of experience helping companies effectively utilize their organizational and human resources. His experience includes senior consultant roles with Merit Group, Inc., Kaset International/Achieve Global and McBer/Hay Group, plus corporate positions as director, training, organization development and quality for Ryder System and director, human resource consulting, training and organization development for the Bendix Corporation (now Honeywell International). He also worked for NASA as a Presidential Interchange Executive. Co-author of “The Value-Added Employee”. Ed holds a M.B.A. degree in Human Resources and Organizational Behavior from Indiana University and has completed doctoral level studies at the University of Michigan.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *